Contributions in the collection UNCERTAINTIES - Influences, Geopolitics, Digital, Risks

PIIGS from one crisis to another: dependency, endurance and influence

To shed light on the dynamics that are currently redefining the planet’s geopolitical landscape, this tripartite study undertakes to analyse the operation of the BRICS+ and PIIGS groups of countries, their heterogenous make-up and their importance in international relations, while comparing them to devoted multilateral structures. Following an initial consideration of BRICS+, this second part will be dedicated to PIIGS. After recalling the origins of the group, it will explore the economic and political challenges faced by these countries, focusing in particular on the issues linked to the stability and operation of the EU. We will illustrate our point using some of the measures obtained recently by this group from the Institution (for example, the post-COVID European recovery policy).

From BRIC to BRICS+ : how to go from a simple acronym to a partnership capable of overthrowing the world order in 25 years

To shed light on the dynamics that are currently redefining the planet’s geopolitical landscape, this tripartite study undertakes to analyse the operation of the BRICS+ and PIIGS groups of countries, their heterogenous make-up and their importance in international relations, while comparing them to devoted multilateral structures. In this first part, we will look at the origins of BRICS and their evolution to BRICS+, before discussing their goals for 2024. The new dimension of this partnership, in economic, demographic and military terms, will thus be highlighted, in particular thanks to a discussion of the recent measures aiming to strengthen its global influence.

[Event] Francophonie and influence, now and tomorrow

History shows that there exists an intricate link between influence, power and language. Today, the number of French speakers worldwide is growing: from 321 million in 2022, the most optimistic forecasts estimate that this figure will reach 600 million by 2050. Nevertheless, the French-speaking world (Francophonie) has recently suffered a series of setbacks on the international stage, such as the sudden end to the teaching of French programmes in Algerian public schools. It is therefore important to ask whether, in the future, in areas as varied as politics, the economy, culture, education and sport, Francophonie will continue to be a vector of influence, especially for France, or whether it now calls for a fresh impetus.

A special Franco-Swedish relationship serving European cooperation

In a world that has become tense and uncertain with the weakening of the United States of America (USA) and the rise of the BRICS, France and above all the European Union now have an opportunity to strengthen their geopolitical position. And with the European Parliamentary elections in June 2024, the topic of European cooperation will be central to discussions this year. Lastly, with France and Germany constantly divorcing and never seeming to remarry, it would be strategic for France to diversify its partnerships within the Union, and Sweden appears the ideal candidate. 

[Event] What influence do consulting firms have on public policy?

‘Deep state’ or fantasy? Described as a ‘tentacular phenomenon’ by the Sénat investigation committee, the influence of private consultancies on the elaboration of public policy led France's upper house to adopt a bill aimed at increasing supervision over the Government's use of such firms. Fifteen months then passed before the bill was presented to the National Assembly, where the text was largely reworked. The amended version of the bill was sent back to the Sénat for a second reading, raising fears that the discussions will stall and signalling a potential lack of political will to do without consultants in the public sector. Concomitantly, the French government has announced the creation of an internal public consulting agency. Will this be enough to remedy the problems identified by the investigation committee and prevent further risks of abuse highlighted by journalists and essayists?

Human Dignity and Neurorights in the Digital Age

by Edgar Gastón Jacobs and Marina de Castro Firmo Some time ago, the expectation of mind invasion or manipulation of people by technological devices was only seen in movies and science fiction books. Examples included erasing people's memories in Men in Black, modifying the behavior of criminals in Clockwork Orange, and arresting people who are about to commit a crime in Minority Report, all of which entertained and invited people to reflect on the future. Today, the massive flow of data and advances in science, particularly in neurotechnologies and artificial intelligence, have made these concepts an emerging field that requires further study and regulation by the legal community. Advanced technologies, such as brain-machine interfaces, wearable and implantable devices, and advanced algorithms, have made neurolaw an increasingly important field.

[Video] Geopolitics: Accounting Is Also an Arena Where Political Visions Clash

In this video, Raluca Sandu, Associate Dean of Faculty at SKEMA Business School, and Claude Revel, Director of SKEMA PUBLIKA, discuss an intriguing topic: the geopolitics of accounting. What is the geopolitical vision of a 'technical' subject like accounting? Are there games of influence in the construction of national and international accounting standards? Does the way accounting is done carry ideologies? If so, which ones? Accounting is not a neutral, abstract technique; it is a technique situated in space and time. A historical approach is therefore needed to understand the social and geopolitical dimensions of accounting.

Artificial Intelligence and Algorithms: Ethics and Fair Cooperation between AI and Human Intelligence

by Claude Revel & David Fayon | With the recent buzz surrounding generative artificial intelligence since the launch of ChatGPT, it has been impossible to escape this tsunami which is likely to disrupt a whole range of human activities for blue-collar workers, but also for white-collar workers who had so far been spared from automation and robotics. The questions that arise are whether algorithms are ethical, depending on how they are trained and reinforced, the data sets they use, their possible biases and whether or not they are inclusive. It is also important to question the role of humans. Does big data require the systematic use of AI, or is human processing sufficient and/or preferable?

[Video] What Futures for Metaverses?

In this video, Margherita PAGANI, Director of SKEMA Research Center for Artificial Intelligence, Associate Dean of SKEMA AI School for Business and Full Professor in Digital and Artificial Intelligence in Marketing, and Claude REVEL, Director of SKEMA Publika, discuss metaverses and answer a number of questions : What is the future of metaverses? Do they need to be regulated? If yes, at which level of intervention? Should there be international standards, professional standards? Who should dictate them? Do States need to intervene, or should they let companies voluntarily self-regulate?

[Event] Higher education in a globalised world: between standards and influences, what training is needed for future managers?

In a globalised world undergoing major changes, influences in higher education are at the heart of the challenges ahead. They will have a significant impact on shaping the minds of future managers. In this context, higher education is more vital than ever in meeting the challenges of the future (climate change, sovereignty and influence, technological advances, global trade, etc.). Future managers must be well trained if they are to implement appropriate solutions.

Photos des intervenants.