Artificial Intelligence and Algorithms: Ethics and Fair Cooperation between AI and Human Intelligence

by Claude Revel & David Fayon | With the recent buzz surrounding generative artificial intelligence since the launch of ChatGPT, it has been impossible to escape this tsunami which is likely to disrupt a whole range of human activities for blue-collar workers, but also for white-collar workers who had so far been spared from automation and robotics. The questions that arise are whether algorithms are ethical, depending on how they are trained and reinforced, the data sets they use, their possible biases and whether or not they are inclusive. It is also important to question the role of humans. Does big data require the systematic use of AI, or is human processing sufficient and/or preferable?

Artificial Intelligence: a Political Subject

Paving the way for innovations that were once out of reach, artificial intelligence (AI) is expected to be a general-purpose technology, just like the steam engine, electricity and electronics in past industrial revolutions. In the space of just a few years, AI has extended into sectors as diverse as transport, telecommunications, healthcare, education, justice and safety. In a field involving such colossal investment costs, French and European decision makers must have a detailed understanding of the comparative advantages enjoyed by their own country and its competitors in AI-related fields in order to target specific investments that will allow them to make the necessary quantitative effort to expand their market share in key sectors.

From BRIC to BRICS+ : how to go from a simple acronym to a partnership capable of overthrowing the world order in 25 years

To shed light on the dynamics that are currently redefining the planet’s geopolitical landscape, this tripartite study undertakes to analyse the operation of the BRICS+ and PIIGS groups of countries, their heterogenous make-up and their importance in international relations, while comparing them to devoted multilateral structures. In this first part, we will look at the origins of BRICS and their evolution to BRICS+, before discussing their goals for 2024. The new dimension of this partnership, in economic, demographic and military terms, will thus be highlighted, in particular thanks to a discussion of the recent measures aiming to strengthen its global influence.

[Event] Francophonie and influence, now and tomorrow

History shows that there exists an intricate link between influence, power and language. Today, the number of French speakers worldwide is growing: from 321 million in 2022, the most optimistic forecasts estimate that this figure will reach 600 million by 2050. Nevertheless, the French-speaking world (Francophonie) has recently suffered a series of setbacks on the international stage, such as the sudden end to the teaching of French programmes in Algerian public schools. It is therefore important to ask whether, in the future, in areas as varied as politics, the economy, culture, education and sport, Francophonie will continue to be a vector of influence, especially for France, or whether it now calls for a fresh impetus.

[Event] What influence do consulting firms have on public policy?

‘Deep state’ or fantasy? Described as a ‘tentacular phenomenon’ by the Sénat investigation committee, the influence of private consultancies on the elaboration of public policy led France's upper house to adopt a bill aimed at increasing supervision over the Government's use of such firms. Fifteen months then passed before the bill was presented to the National Assembly, where the text was largely reworked. The amended version of the bill was sent back to the Sénat for a second reading, raising fears that the discussions will stall and signalling a potential lack of political will to do without consultants in the public sector. Concomitantly, the French government has announced the creation of an internal public consulting agency. Will this be enough to remedy the problems identified by the investigation committee and prevent further risks of abuse highlighted by journalists and essayists?

Guidelines for the ethical use of AI in business

When a company or an organisation designs or uses artificial intelligence (AI), it has a duty to question how it can develop this technology in a responsible manner, without raising any ethical issues. It falls to both AI designers and the leaders who will use this technology for their company’s activities to establish conscientious practices that follow a series of fundamental guidelines. So, what are those guidelines? An opinion by Diane de Saint-Affrique.

The world of work in transition for youth worldwide

SKEMA Publika’s EYES report on the thoughts of international youths highlighted a distrust of the corporate world and a series of concerns shared around the world. In light of this, we wanted to go further in our exploration of young people’s relationship to work. This multi-faceted analysis stems from the reflections of a working group, combined with expert interviews and a literature review. The study highlights the fundamental aspirations shared by youths around the world. Its results suggest that young people’s demands are the expression of latent social dissatisfactions shared with the rest of the population, which public and private decision-makers have failed to address. In short, the “social contract of work” is widely perceived as deteriorated. Thankfully, solutions seem to be within reach: greater participation in decision-making processes, decent working conditions, exemplarity, etc. In spite of the ongoing radical societal changes, the main risk for young people aged 15-29 remains job insecurity. Far from reducing the degree of uncertainty faced by younger generations, the emergence of the green economy and the digitalisation and automation of employments may be fostering greater insecurity. What can we do? Anticipate and think long-term.

Francophonie and Influence, Today and Tomorrow

This event is part of our cycle of meetings “At the heart of influence”. History shows that the link between language and influence/power is a complex one. Today, the number of French speakers in the world is growing. From 321 million in 2022, the most optimistic forecasts estimate that this number will reach 600 million […]

Human Dignity and Neurorights in the Digital Age

by Edgar Gastón Jacobs and Marina de Castro Firmo Some time ago, the expectation of mind invasion or manipulation of people by technological devices was only seen in movies and science fiction books. Examples included erasing people's memories in Men in Black, modifying the behavior of criminals in Clockwork Orange, and arresting people who are about to commit a crime in Minority Report, all of which entertained and invited people to reflect on the future. Today, the massive flow of data and advances in science, particularly in neurotechnologies and artificial intelligence, have made these concepts an emerging field that requires further study and regulation by the legal community. Advanced technologies, such as brain-machine interfaces, wearable and implantable devices, and advanced algorithms, have made neurolaw an increasingly important field.